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Bed Bugs

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Bedbugs

 

The common bedbug is an ectoparisite insect (a parasite which lives on the outside of the body of the host) of the family Cimicidae. Bed bugs feed only on the blood of humans and other warm-blooded hosts. Although they have a cryptic behavior and can conceal themselves in tight cracks and crevices for up to 1 year without a feeding, bed bugs are often found in bed parts, such as mattresses and box springs, hence the common name "Bed Bug". If you see bed bugs, please give us a call. We have not had one bed bug job that we could not eliminate the problem.

We have had special, one on one, in-field training, here at All Seasons Pest Control Company by a K-State graduate in Plant and Entomology for the control of bed bugs.  We have also had over a hundred hours in other training courses for bed bug control through other entities. This has allowed our technicians to perform hundreds of hours in bed bug treatments in a manner to 100% totally eradicate the bed bug problem in your home, apartment, and buildings. We take no short cuts in our bed bug treatment program for control of bed bugs in your home or building and we use all of the latest methods in a safe manner.  If you want a company that has many hours of training and knows what they are doing when it comes to eliminating your bed bug problem, then give All Seasons Pest Control Company a call today. You wont be sorry you did.

The Bedbug life cycle starts with an egg. After birth the bed bug will move through 5 instars or stages, ending with adulthood.  While they are moving through the 5 stages they are referred to as a nymph or instar 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and then adult. In order to move from stage to stage during the lifecycle of a bed bug, a bed bug needs to feed on a mammal before it can move to the next stage. They prefer human blood, but will feed on other available animals such as a pet or bat, bird and so on. They can feed several times during each stage and as much as 1x per day. As the bed bug moves from each stage or instar they will molt as they grow. A bed bug will impale its human host at night to withdraw blood, although if a bedbug has gone without feeding, they might try and feed during the day.  A nymph/instar will look for a blood meal right after hatching from an egg. Room temperate plays a role in how fast bedbugs move through the life cycle.  If the temperature is between 70 and 80 degrees F, the bed bug takes approximately 4 to 5 weeks at 83-90 degrees F to move from egg, through the juvenile or nymph stages, and to adulthood. Three generations of bed bugs could be born in a year. The lifespan of an adult is 10 to 11 months, although they could live for a year or longer without feeding.

Bed Bugs Can Transmit Parasite that Causes Chagas Disease
November 18, 2014 by Entomology 

 

Bed bugs suck. Literally.

 

However, while they are indeed annoying and can keep people awake at night, they have not been regarded as a public-health concern because they have not been documented as transmitters of diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue, or others. However, that status has just changed. A new study from Penn Medicine researchers in the Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics demonstrated that bed bugs can transmit Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, one of the most prevalent and deadly diseases in the Americas.

 

In a study published online this week in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, senior author Michael Z. Levy, PhD, assistant professor in the Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology at the University of Pennsylvania’s Perelman School of Medicine, and researchers at the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia in Peru conducted a series of laboratory experiments that demonstrated bi-directional transmission of T. cruzi between mice and bed bugs.

 

In the first experiment run at the Zoonotic Disease Research Center in Arequipa, Peru, the researchers exposed 10 mice that were infected with the parasite to 20 uninfected bed bugs every three days for a month. Of about 2,000 bed bugs used in the experiment, the majority acquired T. cruzi after feeding on the infected mice. In a separate experiment to test transmission from bug to mouse, they found that 9 out of 12 (75 percent) uninfected mice acquired the parasite after living for 30 days with 20 infected bed bugs.

 

In a third experiment, investigators succeeded in infecting mice by placing the feces of infected bed bugs on the animal’s skin that had either been inflamed by bed bug bites, or scraped with a needle. Four out of 10 mice (40 percent) acquired the parasite by this manner; one out of five (20 percent) were infected when the skin was broken by the insect’s bites only. “We’ve shown that the bed bug can acquire and transmit the parasite. Our next step is to determine whether they are, or will become, an important player in the epidemiology of Chagas disease,” Levy said.
T. cruzi is also especially at home in the guts of bed bugs.

 

“I’ve never seen so many parasites in an insect,” said Renzo Salazar, a biologist at the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia and co-author on the study. “I expected a scenario with very low infection, but we found many parasites — they really replicate well in the gut of the bed bugs.”
These days, more people in the U.S. are being infected with T. cruzi than ever before. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that the number of Chagas disease cases in the U.S. today could be as high as 300,000.

 

“If the parasite starts to spread through bed bugs, decades of progress on Chagas disease control in the Americas could be erased, and we would have no means at our disposal to repeat what had been accomplished,” Levy said.

 

Often referred to as a silent killer, Chagas disease is hard to diagnose in its early stages because the symptoms are mild or absent. The parasites are hidden mainly in the heart and digestive muscle, and over time can cause cardiac disorders and sometimes digestive or neurological problems. In later years, the infection can lead to sudden death or heart failure caused by progressive destruction of the heart muscle. Although there are some drugs to treat Chagas disease, they become less effective the longer a person is infected.

 

The long asymptomatic period of Chagas disease complicates surveillance for new outbreaks of transmission. In Arequipa, Peru, thousands became infected with the parasite before a case appeared in the hospital. The same could happen in cities in the United States if the parasite were to emerge in the bed bug populations, according to the authors.

 

Read more at: Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius) as Vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi

 

Study Examines Bed Bug Movement Between Apartments

 

Rutgers University researchers, Drs. Richard Cooper, Changlu Wang, and Narinderpal Singh, investigated bed bug movement within and between apartments to see how far bed bugs moved in this setting.

 

September 23, 2015

 

Rutgers University researchers, Drs. Richard Cooper, Changlu Wang, and Narinderpal Singh, investigated bed bug movement within and between apartments to see how far bed bugs moved in this setting. The report, titled “Mark-Release-Recapture Reveals Extensive Movement of Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) within and between Apartments” appears in the most recent issue of PLOS One. 

 

An abstract follows:
 

Understanding movement and dispersal of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) under field conditions is important in the control of infestations and for managing the spread of bed bugs to new locations. We investigated bed bug movement within and between apartments using mark-release-recapture (m-r-r) technique combined with apartment-wide monitoring using pitfall-style interceptors. Bed bugs were collected, marked, and released in six apartments. The distribution of marked and unmarked bed bugs in these apartments and their 24 neighboring units were monitored over 32 days. Extensive movement of marked bed bugs within and between apartments occurred regardless of the number of bed bugs released or presence/absence of a host. Comparison of marked and unmarked bed bug distributions confirms that the extensive bed bug activity observed was not an artifact of the m-r-r technique used. Marked bed bugs were recovered in apartments neighboring five of six m-r-r apartments. Their dispersal rates at 14 or 15 d were 0.0–5.0%. The estimated number of bed bugs per apartment in the six m-r-r apartments was 2,433–14,291 at 4–7 d after release. Longevity of bed bugs in the absence of a host was recorded in a vacant apartment. Marked large nymphs (3rd– 5th instar), adult females, and adult males continued to be recovered up to 57, 113, and 134 d after host absence, respectively. Among the naturally existing unmarked bed bugs, unfed small nymphs (1st– 2nd instar) were recovered up to 134 d; large nymphs and adults were still found at 155 d when the study ended. Our findings provide important insight into the behavioral ecology of bed bugs in infested apartments and have significant implications in regards to eradication programs and managing the spread of bed bugs within multi-occupancy dwellings.